Personal injury falls under Tort Law. Personal injury involves civil law cases where you are trying to obtain compensation for an injury you sustained to your person. Physical injuries to your person could arise from being involved in an automobile accident, a railroad accident, airline or other common carrier accident, a construction or other workplace accident, being injured as a result of a dangerous or otherwise unsafe product, and other injury-causing situations. However, personal injuries don't even necessarily have to be physical-they could be psychological. Psychological personal injuries are typically caused by psychological trauma associated with life-threatening and/or disfiguring physical injuries or as a result of witnessing trauma in others or following personal escape from serious injury following a traumatic event. Before you can collect an award, your personal injury lawyer will have to prove that the defendant is liable. To prove liability, the attorney must also establish negligence.
If there is any failure on your part to exercise reasonable care to prevent injury or damage, then there may be comparative (or contributory) negligence, where you and the other party both are at some degree of fault. If you win, you may receive money (an award) to compensate for medical costs, lost wages, and lost future earnings, as well as possibly for pain and suffering and punitive damages.
Matrimonial Law deals with divorce: the termination of a marriage by legal action, requiring a petition or complaint about divorce (or dissolution in some states) by one party. There are two types of divorce– fault and no-fault. A fault divorce (also called a "divorce a vinculo matrimonii" is a judicial termination of a marriage based on marital misconduct or other statutory cause requiring proof in a court of law by the divorcing party that the divorcee had done one of several enumerated things as sufficient grounds for the divorce. Some states still require at least a minimal showing of fault, but no-fault divorce is now common. Usually, a no-fault divorce is referred to as a separation decree; the right to cohabitation is terminated, but the marriage is undissolved, and the status of the parties is not altered.
State law governs divorces, so the petitioning or complaining party can only file in the state in which he/she is and has been a resident for a certain period of time, which varies by state. The most common issues in divorces are a division of property, child custody and support, alimony (spousal support), child visitation, and attorney's fees. Only state courts have jurisdiction over divorces, so the petitioning or complaining party can only file in the state in which he/she is and has been a resident for a period of time. In most states, the legal process of the divorce procedures takes some time to allow for a chance of reconciliation.
Family Law is a multi-faceted area of law that deals with family relations. Family law encompasses such areas as adoption, child custody and visitation, children's rights, child support, spousal support (alimony), separation agreements, civilian and military divorce (dissolution of marriage), marital property division (equitable division), wills, cohabitation agreements, pre-marital (pre-nuptial) agreements, marriage and other legal issues pertinent to the family.
Family law courts generally hear cases pertaining to dissolution of marriage, the legal separation of the parties, nullity of marriage, child custody and visitation, child and spousal support, domestic violence petitions, adoption, and wills (healthcare proxy, power of attorney, and living wills).